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How to Utilize Splitter for Optical Splitting during FTTH

Edit:   Date: 2019-01-17

    Among the PON of FTTH project, fiber optical splitter plays a very important role. It is usually installed between OLT (Optical Line Terminal) and ONT (Optical Network Terminal), and makes multiple users share same one PON interface reality. How to utilize optical splitter for optical splitting during FTTH? This article will discuss this issue in details.

PLC optical splitter or FBT optical splitter

   Before discussing the distribution of FTTH networking, it is necessary to learn about various optical splitters. At present, the common optical splitters are PLC splitter and FBT splitter. The following table shows the differences between them

   With the wide application of FTTH network, the demand for high channels splitter increases, along with the increase of user. Therefore, PLC optical splitter is preferred during FTTH application because of more channels and equal splitting ratio.
The Optical Splitting in FTTH Network

    PON is the base of FTTH network, while the optical splitter is an important component of the PON network. There are two types of optical splitting in PON network: one-stage-splitting and two-stage-splitting. One-stage-splitting is referred to all the optical splitter is centralized in ODF, and the single fiber of splitter directly to the OLT at the central office end, and the multiple fibers at the other end to the multiple ONT at the user end. Usually 1:32 or 1:64 splitter is used for sub-splitting design.

    Two-stage splitting refers to two sets of optical splitter is connected between OLT and ONU by the way of cascade. There are two splitting spots in this way: first stage spot and second stage spots. The first stage spot is usually located near to the central office, generally split by 1:4 splitters; the secondary spot is usually installed near to the end user (such as corridor), a plurality of optical splitter, generally split by 1:8 splitters.

   The one-stage-splitting is high flexible, low cost and easy maintenance, while two-stage-splitting is fast income from investment and low initial investment. In hence, one-stage-splitting is suitable for the center of city or town where the users are intensive, and two-stage-splitting is usually used in sparse village.

The design of splitting ratio in FTTH application

  1: N (N=2~64) or 2: N (N=2~64) optical splitter is very common during PON (N refers to output channels). The optical splitters with different optical splitting ratio play different roles during network, for example the 1:32 splitter or 1:64 splitter for the one-stage-splitting, or the 1:4 or 1:8 splitter for two-stage-splitting. In addition, if OLT is far away from ONU, 1:32 splitter is good choice (normal transmitting distance 20km). if they are near, 1:64 splitter is better application.

   In summary, there are advantages and disadvantages of the one-stage-splitting and two-stage-splitting. It depends on the situations. Besides, the longer the transmitting distance is, the fewer channels we should choose.

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